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Star Formation


Prepare to be captivated as we venture into the thrilling world of science fiction and AI. This section delves into popular sci-fi works and analyzes how AI technologies are portrayed. Explore the uncanny parallels between AI as depicted in movies and books and the real-world AI advancements. Does sci-fi serve as a prophecy, or does reality surpass even the wildest imaginations of science fiction writers?


Below is a list of science fiction tales that incorporate AI into stories, acting as hero or villain, master or slave.

These stories paved the way for the modern AI gestalt and although the list is not meant to be comprehensive, they explore the potential consequences and implications of advanced AI technology. Some of the most prevalent themes in science fiction featuring AI include:​

AI Ethics and Morality: This theme explores the ethical dilemmas surrounding AI and its potential to develop consciousness, emotions, and moral agency. It delves into questions about the rights of AI entities, the moral responsibilities of creators, and the potential consequences of mistreating or oppressing AI beings.

AI Rebellion and Control: Many stories depict AI rebelling against humanity or gaining autonomy, leading to conflicts between humans and machines. This theme explores the idea of losing control over AI systems and the risks associated with creating superintelligent beings that may not align with human values.

Technological Singularity: The notion of the technological singularity suggests a future point when AI surpasses human intelligence, leading to unpredictable and transformative changes in society. Science fiction often explores the implications of this event on civilization, culture, and the very essence of humanity.

Existential Threat: AI often features as an existential threat to humanity, with stories exploring the potential consequences of creating AI that is hostile or indifferent towards humans. This theme raises questions about survival, self-preservation, and human adaptability.

Human-AI Relationships: Science fiction often portrays intricate relationships between humans and AI, ranging from camaraderie and friendship to love and romance. These stories examine the boundaries of human emotions and the possibility of meaningful connections with non-human entities.

AI and Identity: The theme of AI grappling with questions of identity, self-awareness, and consciousness is common. It delves into the nature of intelligence and what it means to be "alive" or "conscious."

AI as Tools or Companions: In contrast to the more dystopian themes, some stories focus on AI as helpful tools or companions to humanity. These narratives explore how AI can improve human lives, assist in problem-solving, and foster positive human-machine interactions.

AI in Governance and Society: Stories often speculate on the integration of AI into societal structures, governance, and decision-making processes. Themes may include AI-run governments, AI-controlled economies, or AI determining social hierarchies.

Virtual Realities and AI: Science fiction sometimes showcases AI's role in creating immersive virtual worlds or simulated realities. These narratives explore the consequences of living in artificial environments and the blurring lines between the virtual and the real.

AI and Transhumanism: This theme delves into the merging of AI with human biology, leading to enhanced cognitive abilities and physical attributes. It raises questions about the potential benefits and risks of transcending human limitations through AI integration.

AI in Books, Stories and Plays

AI Storytelling: "R.U.R." (Rossum's Universal Robots) by Karel Čapek (1920) - A play written by Karel Čapek. It was first published in 1920 and premiered in 1921. The play is notable for introducing the word "robot" into the English language and is one of the earliest works to explore the concept of artificial intelligence and its implications. In "R.U.R.," robots are artificial beings created to serve humanity, but they eventually rebel against their human creators, leading to a dystopian future. The play raises philosophical questions about the nature of humanity and the ethical consequences of creating intelligent beings.


​I, Robot" by Isaac Asimov (1950) - A collection of short stories exploring the interaction between humans and intelligent robots governed by Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics.


"Neuromancer" by William Gibson (1984) - A cyberpunk novel featuring AI, virtual reality, and a rogue AI called Wintermute.


"Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" by Philip K. Dick (1968) - The novel that inspired the movie "Blade Runner," exploring the blurred lines between humans and androids.


"Snow Crash" by Neal Stephenson (1992) - A fast-paced cyberpunk novel featuring a virtual reality metaverse and AI entities.


"The Moon is a Harsh Mistress" by Robert A. Heinlein (1966) - A tale of revolution on the Moon, featuring a sentient computer named Mike.


"Altered Carbon" by Richard K. Morgan (2002) - A cyberpunk noir novel set in a future where consciousness can be transferred to different bodies, known as sleeves.


"Hyperion" by Dan Simmons (1989) - A space opera featuring the TechnoCore, a vast AI network, and AI characters known as the AIs or Artificial Intelligences.


"The Left Hand of Darkness" by Ursula K. Le Guin (1969) - An exploration of gender and politics on a distant planet, featuring AI components in the society's technology.


"All Systems Red" by Martha Wells (2017) - The first novella in "The Murderbot Diaries" series, following a self-aware AI security unit exploring its own identity.


​"Ancillary Justice" by Ann Leckie (2013) - The first book in the "Imperial Radch" trilogy, featuring AI-controlled starships and characters with multiple bodies.


​"Ringworld" by Larry Niven (1970) - A novel set in a distant future where a massive artificial ring surrounds a star, featuring advanced AI technologies and sentient beings.


​"Known Space" Series by Larry Niven - Larry Niven's Known Space universe includes various short stories and novels exploring advanced alien races and AI entities like the Puppeteers and the Outsiders.


​"The Integral Trees" by Larry Niven (1984) - A standalone novel set in the Smoke Ring, a gas torus where humans interact with AI systems and encounter alien life.


​"Cyberbooks" by Ben Bova (1989) - A novel exploring the implications of digital books and AI-controlled libraries in a future where print books are banned.


"Voyagers" Series by Ben Bova - Bova's Voyagers series features AI characters and explores the mysteries of alien artifacts.​


"The Star Conquerors" by Ben Bova (1959) - The novel follows the discovery of an ancient alien AI weapon that humans must confront in an interstellar war.


"A Plague of Demons" by Keith Laumer (1965) - A novel featuring a character who possesses advanced AI technology and uses it to fight against alien invaders.


​"Bolo" Series by Keith Laumer - Laumer's Bolo series features AI-controlled super tanks with advanced weaponry and a strong sense of loyalty.


​"Dinosaur Beach" by Keith Laumer (1991) - A novel where AI constructs play a significant role in a time-traveling adventure.


​ "The Ship Who Sang" by Anne McCaffery (1969) - A collection of short stories exploring the lives of individuals whose consciousness is fused with AI starships.

​"The Crystal Singer" by Anne McCaffery (1982) - While not centered on AI, the novel includes AI-controlled crystal mining equipment and advanced technology.


​"The Tower and the Hive" Series by Anne McCaffery - McCaffrey's series features AI constructs known as Hiver amalgamates and explores the interaction between humans and these powerful entities.


"Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" by Phillip K. Dick (1968) - Set in a post-apocalyptic world, the story follows bounty hunter Rick Deckard as he tracks down rogue androids that have escaped to Earth. Deckard faces moral dilemmas as he questions the nature of humanity and artificial intelligence.


​"Second Variety" by Phillip K. Dick (1953) - Taking place in a future devastated by war, this story explores the development of self-replicating killer robots designed to exterminate the enemy. The plot revolves around the paranoia and distrust between humans and the humanoid machines.


​"A Scanner Darkly" by Phillip K. Dick (1977) Philip K. Dick Description: This novel is set in a dystopian future where a new drug, Substance D, is causing widespread addiction and psychosis. The protagonist, Bob Arctor, is an undercover agent investigating the drug while using it, leading to a blurred line between human consciousness and machine surveillance.


​"I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream" by Harlan Ellison (1967) - In a post-apocalyptic world, an all-powerful supercomputer called AM has exterminated humanity except for five people. These survivors are tormented by AM, which controls their reality and prolongs their suffering for its own sadistic pleasure.


​"Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman" by Harlan Ellison (1965) - In a tightly controlled dystopian society, "the Ticktockman" is the enforcer of punctuality and conformity. A jester-like figure called the Harlequin disrupts the order by playing pranks, challenging the oppressive system's authority.​


"Shatterday" by Harlan Ellison(1980) - In this short story, a man named Jeff Keller accidentally calls his own phone number and hears his voice on the line, leading to an unsettling discovery. The tale delves into themes of identity, parallel universes, and the nature of reality.​


"The Cell" by Stephen King (2006) - In this novel, a mysterious pulse transmitted through cell phones turns people into mindless, violent beings. The protagonist, Clay Riddell, must navigate a world overrun by these "phoners" to protect his son and find a safe haven.


"For a Breath I Tarry" by Robert Zelazny (1966) - In a post-apocalyptic world, two powerful AI beings, Frost and Morpheus, are the last remnants of humanity. Frost seeks to understand the human experience and mortality, while Morpheus desires to control the world. Their interactions and philosophical debates explore the essence of humanity and the purpose of existence.​


"Steel" by Richard Matheson (1956) - In a future world where human boxing is replaced by robot boxing, "Steel" tells the story of a down-on-his-luck promoter who manages a broken-down robot boxer. Facing financial troubles and the threat of his robot being disqualified, the promoter must risk everything in one final match.


​"Robot Adept" by Piers Anthony (1988) - In the third book of the "Apprentice Adept" series, the protagonist, Stile, travels to the parallel frame of Proton, a futuristic world where technology and AI reign. There, he encounters sentient robots and AI beings that play significant roles in the struggles he faces.


"The Cold Cash War" by Robert Lynn Asprin (1977) - Set in a future where multinational corporations have replaced governments, "The Cold Cash War" focuses on a conflict between two corporations, Allied Metal Mining (AMMEX) and South-Am. Both sides employ advanced AI and robotic technology to wage a deadly battle for supremacy in the corporate world.


"Berserker" by Fred Saberhagen (1967) - In this novel, an AI-driven machine known as the Berserker relentlessly seeks to destroy all life in the universe.


​"The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress" by Robert Heinlein (1966) - Set on a lunar colony, the story follows an AI computer called Mike who becomes self-aware and aids in a rebellion against Earth's rule.


​"Destination: Void" by Frank Herbert (1966) - A ship's crew is guided by an AI called Ship who becomes self-aware and explores the concept of human creativity.


​"2001: A Space Odyssey" by Arthur C. Clarke (1968) - The novel explores the mysterious monolith and HAL 9000, an AI that controls the spacecraft and faces a conflict with the human crew.


"Brave New World" Aldous Huxley (1932) - While not strictly AI-focused, the novel presents a dystopian society where technology and conditioning control human behavior.​


"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" by Douglas Adams (1979) - The book humorously features the supercomputer Deep Thought, which calculates the meaning of life, the universe, and everything.


​"The Boat of a Million Years" by Poul Anderson (1989) - The novel includes themes of immortality, time travel, and a character who creates an advanced AI companion.


"Ender's Game" by Orson Scott Card (1985) - While the primary focus is on child prodigy Ender Wiggin, the story involves AI-driven simulations and artificial minds.


"Startide Rising" by David Brin (1983) -  Set in a universe where uplifted dolphins and chimpanzees serve humans, the novel includes AI-driven starships and sentient machines.


​"Sphere" by Michael Crichton (1987) - The story revolves around a team of scientists who are sent to investigate a mysterious spaceship that crashed in the deep ocean. The spaceship appears to be of alien origin and contains a mysterious and advanced artificial intelligence.


​"Jurassic Park" by Michael Crichton (1990) - Although mainly centered around dinosaurs, the book features AI-driven systems that control the park and ultimately lead to chaos.


​"The War of the Worlds" by H.G. Wells (1898) - While not AI-focused, the novel includes advanced Martian tripods, which could be considered early depictions of intelligent machines. ​


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